Alright, so I have a boat, but I don't always feel like getting it out to go fishing. That is where no boat fishing comes in and there are actually a couple of good places here to do that.
One of them is Black Point Marina in Cutler Bay.
We like to park on the left side of the channel, from there you can walk down the long trail – you can't miss it, it runs right along the channel where the boats taxi out into the bay. Once you reach the concrete walking path that ends continue on until you get around channel. You should see "Number 15-13", you can't miss them they're big red and green diamond shaped signs in the water of the channel.
From here we just cast a line and you'll reel in fish all day right there. They love hanging around the wall drop of the shore and center of the channel.
The places around marinas usually have good places to fish. You may have to walk around a bit to find a good spot, but that's part of the game.
For tackle, get a 7 foot medium/heavy graphite spinning rod. I like the Calico Jacks; I got mine from Dick's for $60. For a reel, get a Penn Fierce 3000 for $50. Put 20 pound mono backing on the reel, and top that with 200 yards of 30 pound braided line (I like Power Pro). At the end of the braided line, tie on 4 feet of 20# flourocarbon, and then tie on a lure. Cheap lures that work really well are 3/8 or 1/2oz white bucktails. I also like Mirrolure Mirrodyne 3/8 oz lures. Another approach you can take is to get some 1/4 oz jigheads and some Gulp shrimp.
With that setup, you can pretty much catch anything in Florida short of an adult tarpon.
Brings your friends, family and some beer, and it is easy to make a day out of it.